Lawn Aeration: Hidden Benefits Revealed

Lawn Aeration: Hidden Benefits Revealed


Lawn Aeration And Its Effects On Different Turfgrass Types

A lush, green lawn is a homeowner's dream, but achieving and maintaining it can be a challenge.

Core aeration is a crucial lawn care practice that can help your grass grow stronger and healthier 

      Here we'll discuss the specific impacts of core aeration on warm-season and cool-season grasses.

      🌞Warm-Season Grasses

        Warm-season grasses like

        • Bermuda
        • Zoysia
        • St. Augustine
        • Centipede
        • Bahia
        • Buffalo Grass

        • Are well-suited for warmer climates and require less water than their cool-season counterparts.

        • They grow actively during the hot summer months but go dormant during winter.

        -Core aeration can provide several benefits for these grass types

        Deeper Root Growth

          • Core aeration helps warm-season grasses develop stronger, deeper root systems.
          • This leads to a more resilient lawn that can withstand heat, drought, and heavy foot traffic.

          Improved water and nutrient absorption

            • Aeration allows water and nutrients to penetrate the soil more efficiently.
            • This means a warm-season grass can absorb the essential elements they need to grow healthy and green.

            Reduced soil compaction

              • Over time, soil can become compacted, making it difficult for grass roots to expand and access vital resources.
              • Core aeration loosens compacted soil, giving warm-season grass roots the space they need to thrive.

              Thatch control

                • Thatch is a layer of dead and living organic matter that can accumulate on the soil surface.
                • Aeration helps break up and manage thatch buildup, allowing warm-season grasses to grow unimpeded.

                When is the best time to aerate warm-season grasses?
                For warm-season grasses, the best time to aerate is during late spring or early summer when they are actively growing. 

                  • Avoid aerating during hot, dry periods or when the lawn is dormant.
                  • Aeration should be repeated every 1-3 years, depending on soil type and lawn usage.

                  🍃 Cool-Season Grasses 

                  Cool-season grasses like:

                  • Kentucky bluegrass
                  • Perennial rye grass
                  • Fine fescue (includes creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, hard fescue, and sheep fescue)
                  • Tall fescue
                  • Annual rye grass
                  • Creeping bent grass
                  • Colonial bent grass

                  • Thrive in cooler temperatures and require more water than warm-season grasses.

                  • They stay green throughout the winter months and grow actively during the cool seasons.

                  Core aeration provides several advantages for these grass types as well

                  Thicker, Healthier Grass Growth

                    • Aeration encourages cool-season grasses to grow denser, resulting in a thicker, more attractive lawn.
                    • Increased water and nutrient uptake: Just like warm-season grasses, cool-season grasses benefit from enhanced water and nutrient absorption after aeration.

                    Reduced soil compaction

                      • Aeration alleviates soil compaction in cool-season lawns, allowing grass roots to spread and access essential resources.

                      Thatch management

                      • Core aeration also helps control thatch buildup in cool-season lawns, promoting healthier grass growth.

                      When is the best time to aerate cool-season  grasses?

                      For cool-season grasses, the ideal time to aerate is during early fall or late summer when they are actively growing. Avoid aerating during extreme heat or drought conditions.

                        • Similar to warm-season grasses, aeration should be repeated every 1-3 years, depending on soil type and lawn usage.


                        • Core aeration is a valuable lawn care practice that has specific benefits for different turfgrass types.

                        • By understanding the unique effects of aeration on warm-season and cool-season grasses, you can tailor your lawn care routine to optimize the health and appearance of your lawn.

                        St. Augustine Grass: A Guide to Health Problems, And How Aeration Can Help

                        St. Augustine grass is highly sought-after for lawns in warm climates, thanks to its high tolerance to heat, and humidity levels.

                        However, it can encounter issues with pests, diseases, and soil conditions like any other grass variety. 

                        🐛 Common Pest Problems

                          St. Augustine grass can attract pest issues when it's stressed.

                          Here are the most important insect pests of St Augustine

                          1. Chinch bugs

                          The Number 1 insect pest of St. Augustine Grass.

                          Chinch bugs primarily target the base of the grass blade, near the crown, and the leaf sheaths when feeding on St. Augustine grass.

                            • The crown is the point where the grass shoots emerge from the roots, and the leaf sheaths are the lower parts of the grass blades that wrap around the stem.

                            • By targeting these areas, chinch bugs can access the plant's sap, which is rich in nutrients. As they feed, they inject toxins into the plant tissue, leading to yellowing, wilting, and eventually death of the grass if left untreated.

                            Controlling chinch bugs

                            involves applying the appropriate insecticide, introducing beneficial insects like ladybugs, and maintaining a healthy lawn.

                            2. Sod Webworm

                            Resembling caterpillars, these pests consume grass blades at night, leaving behind noticeable damage.

                              • Their presence can be identified by closely examining the grass for small, translucent larvae.

                              • Control methods include using targeted insecticides, promoting natural predators like birds and beneficial insects, and proper lawn care practices.

                              3. Army worms

                              • Another caterpillar species, Army worms can defoliate extensive lawn areas rapidly. They typically feed on the grass's surface, creating an irregular, ragged appearance.

                                • To manage army worm infestations, apply the right insecticide, encourage the presence of natural predators, and keep the lawn well-maintained.

                                Pest Control Tips

                                • Accurately identify the specific pest causing damage.

                                • Select and apply the appropriate insecticide for the pest in question.

                                • Mow and water the lawn regularly to promote grass health.

                                • Maintain a grass height of 3 to 4 inches to hinder pests' access to grass blades.

                                🍄 Common Disease Problems

                                St. Augustine grass can also fall victim to diseases like

                                Gray leaf spot

                                • This fungal disease manifests as small gray or tan spots on grass blades. The spots may enlarge and merge, causing the blades to wither and die.

                                • To prevent gray leaf spot, avoid excessive nitrogen fertilization, water the lawn early in the day, and apply fungicides labeled for the specific fungus.

                                Brown patch

                                • Another fungal disease, brown patch results in circular patches of dead or yellowing grass.

                                • The disease is often triggered by high humidity and temperatures.

                                • To manage brown patch, maintain a balanced fertilization program, avoid over watering, and use fungicides when necessary.

                                Take-all root rot

                                • A soil-borne disease, take-all root rot causes grass roots to decay, leading to the plant's eventual demise.

                                • The disease can be identified by irregular patches of thinning, yellowing grass.

                                • To prevent take-all root rot, apply the right amount of nitrogen, avoid over watering, and use fungicides if needed.

                                💧 Disease Prevention Tips

                                  • Practice proper watering and fertilization techniques.
                                  • Refrain from over watering and over fertilizing.
                                  • Remove and discard infected grass clippings
                                  • Apply a fungicide to halt disease progression.

                                                                            🌡️ Soil pH Problems with Color

                                                                            • For optimal St. Augustine grass growth, soil pH should range from 6.0 to 7.0.

                                                                            • When pH levels are too high or too low, the grass may become discolored, exhibit stunted growth, or even die. 

                                                                            💡 Soil pH Solutions

                                                                            • Conduct a soil test to determine your soil's pH.If your soil's pH is too low (acidic), apply lime to raise it.

                                                                            • If your soil's pH is too high (alkaline), apply sulfur to lower it

                                                                            Soil Aeration : A Solution for these common lawn conditions

                                                                            • Soil aeration involves creating small holes in the soil, allowing air, water, and nutrients to reach the grass roots.

                                                                            • This process can enhance the overall health of the grass and address many of the previously discussed problems. 

                                                                            Benefits of soil aeration

                                                                            • Prevents pest problems by fostering a healthy, well-draining soil environment that is less attractive to pests.

                                                                            • A well-aerated soil permits air, water, and nutrients to reach grass roots, enhancing overall grass health and making it less appealing to pests.

                                                                            • Reduces soil compaction, which can contribute to pest issues. Compacted soil restricts the movement of air, water, and nutrients, leading to stressed grass that is more susceptible to pests.

                                                                            • Helps prevent diseases by improving airflow to the roots and reducing soil compaction.

                                                                            • Soil compaction can create a dense, moist environment conducive to fungal disease development. Aeration can improve air circulation and reduce compaction, leading to a healthier environment for your grass.

                                                                              Soil Amendments

                                                                              • Addresses soil pH issues by facilitating lime and sulfur penetration to the roots. When soil is compacted, it can be difficult for these amendments to permeate the soil and reach the roots. Aeration creates channels that enable these amendments to access the roots, where they can improve the grass's color and vigor.

                                                                              📅 When to Aerate

                                                                              • Aerate your St. Augustine grass during its active growing season, typically in the spring or early summer.Avoid aerating during periods of drought or extreme heat, as it can cause additional stress to the grass.

                                                                              🛠️ Aeration Methods

                                                                              Core aeration

                                                                              • This method removes small plugs of soil, creating spaces for air, water, and nutrients to reach the roots. It is considered the most effective aeration technique for compacted soil.

                                                                              Spike aeration

                                                                              • This technique involves poking holes in the soil using a spiked roller or aerator shoes. It is less effective than core aeration but can still help improve soil conditions.


                                                                              • St. Augustine grass can be susceptible to several pests, diseases, and soil problems. However, by correctly identifying and addressing these issues, you can maintain a healthy and beautiful lawn.

                                                                              • Soil aeration is an effective solution that can help prevent or resolve many of these challenges, allowing you to enjoy a lush and vibrant lawn for years to come. Enhance your lawn's health and vitality with soil aeration, and tackle common problems head-on. 🌿👋

                                                                              Fine Fescue Grasses: Tackling Pests, Diseases, and Soil Compaction

                                                                              Fine fescue grasses, including creeping red, chewings, hard, and sheep fescue, are favored for their shade tolerance, fine texture, and cold hardiness.

                                                                              • While these grasses can adapt well to a variety of conditions, they may still encounter issues such as pests, diseases, and soil problems.

                                                                              Here we can explore these challenges and discuss how soil aeration can help improve the health of fine fescue lawns, with a specific focus on how aeration benefits shade-tolerant grasses.

                                                                              🐜 Unique Pest Problems

                                                                              While fine fescue grasses can be affected by some of the same pests as other grass types, they may also encounter unique pests such as

                                                                              1. Leatherjackets

                                                                              • The larvae of crane flies feed on grass roots, causing irregular patches of thin or dead grass.


                                                                              • To control leatherjackets, apply targeted insecticides, encourage natural predators like birds, and maintain proper lawn care practices.

                                                                              2. European crane fly

                                                                              • Adult crane flies do not damage grass, but their larvae can cause significant damage by feeding on grass roots and crowns.


                                                                              • Preventing infestations involves using appropriate insecticides and promoting a healthy lawn through proper care.

                                                                              🍂 Unique Disease Problems

                                                                              Fine fescue grasses are susceptible to diseases such as:

                                                                              Pink snow mold

                                                                              • This fungal disease occurs in cool, wet weather and appears as pinkish patches on the grass.

                                                                              • To prevent pink snow mold, improve drainage, avoid overwatering, and apply fungicides when needed.

                                                                              Powdery mildew

                                                                              • This fungus appears as a white or gray powdery substance on grass blades and can cause the grass to become discolored or stunted.

                                                                              • To prevent powdery mildew, increase sunlight exposure by pruning overhanging branches, avoid overfertilizing, and apply fungicides when necessary.

                                                                              💧 Disease Prevention Tips

                                                                              1. Practice proper watering and fertilization techniques.

                                                                              2. Avoid overwatering and overfertilizing.

                                                                              3. Remove and discard infected grass clippings.

                                                                              4. Apply a fungicide to halt disease progression

                                                                              🌡️ Problems with Color : Soil PH

                                                                              • Fine fescue grasses prefer soil pH levels between 5.5 and 6.5.

                                                                              • When pH levels are outside this range, grass may become discolored, exhibit stunted growth, or even die. 

                                                                              Soil pH Solutions

                                                                              • Conduct a soil test to determine your soil's pH.

                                                                              If your soil's pH is too low (acidic), apply lime to raise it.

                                                                              If your soil's pH is too high (alkaline), apply sulfur to lower it.

                                                                              Soil Aeration: A Key Solution for Fine Fescue Grasses

                                                                              Soil aeration creates small holes in the soil, allowing air, water, and nutrients to reach the grass roots.

                                                                               Benefit of aeration for fine fescue lawns

                                                                              • Encourages deep root growth, enabling fine fescue grasses to better access water and nutrients, especially in shady areas where competition from tree roots can be intense.

                                                                              • Reduces soil compaction, promoting better water and nutrient absorption and improving the grass's overall health.

                                                                              • Enhances resistance to pests and diseases by promoting a stronger, more resilient lawn.

                                                                              🌟 Soil Aeration Benefits for Fine Fescue Lawns in Shady Areas:

                                                                              • Consider a fine fescue lawn located under a canopy of trees. The lawn has been struggling with root competition, limited sunlight, and reduced air circulation.

                                                                              • These factors have led to a weaker grass root system, making it more susceptible to pest infestations and disease outbreaks.

                                                                              By aerating the soil, homeowners can help the fine fescue grass by

                                                                              • Allowing better penetration of water, air, and nutrients to the grass roots, enabling the grass to compete more effectively with tree roots for resources.

                                                                              • Improving the grass's overall health and vigor, which in turn makes it more resistant to pests and diseases.

                                                                              • Creating a more balanced soil environment, which can help address issues related to soil pH, compaction, and drainage.

                                                                              📅 When to Aerate Fine Fescue Lawns

                                                                              • Aerate your fine fescue grass during its active growing season, typically in the fall or early spring.

                                                                              • Avoid aerating during periods of drought or extreme cold, as it can cause additional stress to the grass.

                                                                              🛠️ Aeration Methods

                                                                              Core aeration

                                                                              • This method removes small plugs of soil, creating spaces for air, water, and nutrients to reach the roots. It is considered the most effective aeration technique for compacted soil.

                                                                              Spike aeration

                                                                              • This technique involves poking holes in the soil using a tow- behind, spiked roller or aerator shoes.

                                                                              • It is less effective than core aeration but can still help improve soil conditions, and water penetration.


                                                                              • Fine fescue grasses may face unique challenges due to their shade tolerance and adaptation to cooler climates.

                                                                              • However, by correctly identifying and addressing these issues, homeowners can maintain a healthy and attractive lawn.

                                                                              • Soil aeration is a key solution that can help prevent or resolve many of these challenges, allowing you to enjoy a lush and vibrant lawn even in shaded areas.

                                                                              • Give your fine fescue lawn the care it deserves with soil aeration, and watch it thrive. 

                                                                              Soil Compaction and Bermuda Grass Lawns: Impact and Solutions

                                                                              Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is a popular warm-season grass species native to Africa, widely used for lawns, sports fields, and golf courses due to its dense turf, rapid growth, and ability to withstand wear and tear.

                                                                                However, even the most robust grass types are not immune to soil compaction, a common issue that can affect the health and vigor of Bermuda grass lawns.

                                                                                Here I'll discuss soil compaction, its impact on Bermuda grass lawns, and effective solutions to restore and maintain your lawn's health.

                                                                                Understanding Soil Compaction

                                                                                • Soil compaction occurs when the soil particles are pressed together, reducing pore space between them.

                                                                                • This can be caused by various factors such as foot traffic, heavy machinery, or even natural processes like rainfall.

                                                                                • Compacted soil has reduced air and water infiltration, restricted root growth, and diminished microbial activity, leading to poor nutrient availability and a weakened plant structure.

                                                                                The Effects of Soil Compaction on Bermuda Grass Lawns

                                                                                1. Reduced Air and Water Infiltration

                                                                                • Soil compaction can significantly reduce the infiltration rate of air and water into the soil.

                                                                                • As a result, Bermuda grass lawns may experience inadequate water absorption and oxygen levels.

                                                                                • Without proper water and oxygen, the grass's roots cannot access the essential nutrients required for growth, leading to a less vigorous lawn with weak, shallow roots.

                                                                                2. Restricted Root Growth

                                                                                • Compacted soil restricts root growth by limiting the space available for root expansion.

                                                                                • In such conditions, Bermuda grass roots may become stunted and unable to penetrate deeper into the soil.

                                                                                • Consequently, the grass becomes more susceptible to drought stress, disease, and pest infestation due to its reduced ability to access water and nutrients from the soil.

                                                                                3. Diminished Microbial Activity and Nutrient Availability

                                                                                • Soil compaction negatively impacts the soil's biological ecosystem, causing a decline in microbial activity.

                                                                                • The reduced microbial activity in compacted soil can lead to poor nutrient cycling, which affects nutrient availability for Bermuda grass.

                                                                                • The limited access to essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can stunt grass growth and affect the overall appearance and health of your lawn.

                                                                                4. Increased Thatch Buildup

                                                                                • Thatch is a layer of dead organic material, such as grass clippings and roots, that accumulates between the soil surface and the green grass blades.

                                                                                • Compacted soil can contribute to excessive thatch buildup as the reduced air, water, and microbial activity limit the decomposition of organic matter.

                                                                                • Thatch accumulation can further aggrevate soil compaction by creating a barrier that prevents water and air from penetrating the soil surface, ultimately leading to a weakened Bermuda grass lawn.

                                                                                5. Weed and Disease Susceptibility

                                                                                • Compacted soil conditions can make Bermuda grass lawns more susceptible to weed invasion and disease.

                                                                                • Weeds can thrive in compacted soil as they often have more aggressive root systems than grass, allowing them to outcompete Bermuda grass for resources.

                                                                                Additionally, the weak root structure and reduced nutrient availability caused by compaction can make Bermuda grass more vulnerable to diseases such as dollar spot, leaf spot, and pythium blight.

                                                                                Solutions for Soil Compaction in Bermuda Grass Lawns

                                                                                Core Aeration

                                                                                  Core aeration is a mechanical process that involves removing small plugs of soil from the lawn using an aerator.

                                                                                  • This technique helps to alleviate soil compaction by creating channels for air, water, and nutrients to penetrate the soil more easily.

                                                                                  • Core aeration is best performed during the active growing season for Bermuda grass, typically from late spring to early summer.


                                                                                  • Topdressing is the application of a thin layer of organic material, such as compost or sand, to the surface of a lawn

                                                                                  • This practice helps to improve soil structure, increase nutrient availability, and enhance microbial activity.

                                                                                  • When combined with core aeration, topdressing can effectively combat soil compaction in Bermuda grass lawns by filling the aeration holes with nutrient-rich material.

                                                                                  Topdressing should be done during the active growing season, following core aeration, to maximize the benefits for Bermuda grass.

                                                                                  Proper Irrigation and Water Management

                                                                                  Implementing proper irrigation practices can help prevent soil compaction in Bermuda grass lawns.

                                                                                  • Overwatering can lead to soil compaction as the excess water reduces the soil's air content, causing the soil particles to settle more closely together.

                                                                                  • Be sure to water your lawn deeply and infrequently, allowing the soil to dry out slightly between irrigation sessions. This method encourages deeper root growth and helps prevent soil compaction.

                                                                                  Controlled Foot Traffic and Equipment Use

                                                                                  • Minimizing foot traffic and avoiding the use of heavy equipment on your Bermuda grass lawn can help reduce the risk of soil compaction.

                                                                                  • Create designated walkways and use lightweight lawn equipment whenever possible to limit the pressure applied to the soil surface.

                                                                                  Regular Maintenance and Fertilization

                                                                                  • Proper lawn maintenance, including regular mowing, fertilization, and pest control, can help maintain the health and vigor of your Bermuda grass lawn, making it more resilient to soil compaction.

                                                                                  Be sure to follow the recommended fertilization schedule for Bermuda grass and use a slow-release fertilizer to provide a consistent nutrient supply.


                                                                                  Overseeding is the process of sowing new grass seeds into an existing lawn to improve its density and appearance.

                                                                                  • In the case of compacted Bermuda grass lawns, overseeding with a mixture of Bermuda grass and other compatible grass species can help increase the lawn's resilience to compaction.

                                                                                  • The additional grass species will provide a more extensive root network, helping to maintain the soil structure and alleviate compaction.


                                                                                  Soil compaction poses a significant threat to the health and appearance of Bermuda grass lawns, leading to reduced air and water infiltration, restricted root growth, diminished nutrient availability, and increased susceptibility to weeds and diseases.

                                                                                  • By implementing practical solutions like core aeration, topdressing, proper irrigation, controlled foot traffic, regular maintenance, and overseeding, you can effectively address soil compaction and restore the health and beauty of your Bermuda grass lawn.

                                                                                  Common Problems With Zoysia Grass: A Guide to Aeration and Reviving Your Lawn 

                                                                                  A stunning zoysia grass lawn is perfect for a beautiful and practical landscape.

                                                                                  But even this tough grass can face challenges and needs expert care.

                                                                                  In this ultimate guide, I'll cover common issues with zoysia grass, how to bring a struggling lawn back to life, and the importance of lawn aeration to make sure your zoysia grass lawn stays strong and green.

                                                                                  🤔 Common Problems with Zoysia 

                                                                                  1. Thatch Buildup

                                                                                  • Zoysia grass can have a thick layer of thatch (a mix of living and dead plant material).

                                                                                  • Too much thatch can stop water and nutrients from getting to the grass roots, making the lawn weak and unhealthy.

                                                                                  2. Compacted Soil

                                                                                  • Heavy foot traffic and machinery can pack the soil down, making it hard for air and water to get through and making it difficult for roots to grow.

                                                                                  3. Invasive Weeds

                                                                                  • Zoysia grass is usually good at keeping weeds away, but if the lawn is stressed or unhealthy, weeds can grow and steal resources.

                                                                                  4. Disease And Pests

                                                                                  • Zoysia grass can get certain diseases and pests, like large patch disease or nematodes, which can hurt the lawn.

                                                                                  🌱 Reviving a Zoysia Grass Lawn

                                                                                  1. Figure out the problem

                                                                                  • Find out what's causing stress or damage to your lawn (check for thatch buildup, signs of disease or pests, or soil compaction).

                                                                                  2. Fix Thatch Issues

                                                                                  • If thatch is a problem, use a power rake or vertical mower to break it up and help water and nutrients get through.

                                                                                  3. Treat Diseases And Pests

                                                                                  • If your lawn has a disease or pest problem, talk to a local lawn care expert or extension office for advice on treatments.

                                                                                  4. Improve Soil Health

                                                                                  • Fix compacted soil with aeration and think about adding organic matter (like compost) to make the soil healthier and help roots grow.

                                                                                  🌾 Is Aeration Needed for Zoysia Grass?

                                                                                  Zoysia grass lawns might not need aeration as often as other grass types, but aeration still has big benefits, like better root growth, easier water absorption, less thatch buildup, and more nutrient uptake. Aeration is a key part of keeping a Zoysia lawn healthy.

                                                                                  ⏰ When Should Zoysia Grass be Aerated?

                                                                                  The best time to aerate zoysia grass is in late spring or early summer when the grass is growing well.

                                                                                  Aeration during this time lets the grass recover quickly and make the most of the better soil conditions.

                                                                                  🌱 How to Aerate Zoysia Grass

                                                                                  1. Prepare your lawn

                                                                                  • Mow your lawn a little lower than usual and get rid of any debris or obstacles.

                                                                                  2. Choose the Right Aerator

                                                                                  • Core aerators (which take out small plugs of soil) usually work better for zoysia grass lawns than spike aerators.

                                                                                  3. Aerate in a Pattern

                                                                                  • Start by aerating the edges of your lawn, then move in parallel lines across the rest of the area for even coverage.

                                                                                  4. Water and Fertilize

                                                                                  • After aerating, water your lawn well and use a slow-release fertilizer to help the grass grow and recover.

                                                                                  💡 Extra Lawn Care Tips for Zoysia Grass


                                                                                  • Cut zoysia grass to a height 3 to 4 inches. Don't remove more than one-third of the grass blade at once to avoid stressing the lawn.


                                                                                  • Zoysia grass can handle dry conditions, but it still needs water, especially when it's new.

                                                                                  • Give it 1 inch of water per week, from rain or extra watering. Water deeply and not too often to encourage strong root growth.


                                                                                  • Use a slow-release fertilizer in the spring and fall, based on the results of a soil test to make sure the nutrients are balanced.

                                                                                  Weed Control

                                                                                  • Keep your lawn healthy and thick to prevent weeds. If weeds do show up, pull them by hand or use a selective herbicide for spot treatments.

                                                                                  Monitoring for Pests and Diseases

                                                                                  • Check your lawn regularly for signs of pests or diseases.

                                                                                  • Catching problems early and treating them can help stop serious damage.


                                                                                  • A healthy, well-cared-for zoysia grass lawn is a great addition to any landscape.

                                                                                  • By knowing the special care zoysia grass needs, fixing common problems, and including aeration and other lawn care practices, you can create a gorgeous lawn that everyone will envy.

                                                                                  • With regular care and attention, your zoysia grass lawn will stay beautiful and strong for years to come.

                                                                                  Chad Freeman
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